Travers (1970: 447) states that achievement is the result of what an individual has learned from some educational experiences. Additionally, De Cecco & Crawford (1977) states that achievement is the expectancy of finding satisfaction in mastering challenging and difficult performances. In addition to that, Yelon, Weinstein, & Weener (1977: 301) expresses achievement as the successfulness of individual, while another source Smith & Hudgins (1964: 95) says that achievement is to do one’s best, to be successful, to accomplish tasks requiring skill and effort and to be recognized by authority. Furthermore, Tinambunan (1988: 149) defines achievement as the student’s grasp of some body of knowledge or proficiency in certain skills. Besides, Garrison, Kingston, and McDonald (1955-1964: 331) affirm the definition of achievement as the progress pupils make toward the goals and objectives of the curriculum, they then assert further about the definition that achievement may be the one’s ability or the extent of his/her knowledge in a specific content area.
Based on the opinions above the writer concludes that achievement is the result, the successfulness, the extent or ability, the progress in learning educational experiences that the individual indicate in relation with his/her educational learning.
De Cecco, John P., and Crawford, William R. The Psychology of Learning and Instruction. Educational Psychology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., EnglewoodCliffs. 1974.
Smith, Louis. M., and Hudgins, Bryce. B. Educational Psychology. An Application of Social and Behavioral Theory. New York: Alfred. A. Knopt. 1964.
Tinambunan, Wilmar. Evaluation of Student Achievement. Jakarta: Depdikbud. 1988.
Travers, John P. Fundamentals of Educational Psychology. Scrantom, Pensylvania: International Textbook Company. 1970.
Yelon, Stephen L., Weinstein, Grace W., and Weener, Paul D. A Teacher’s World. Psychology in the Classroom. Tokyo: Mc Graw-Hill, Inc. 1977.